Each round regarding the IBBSS utilized respondent sampling that is driven to your concealed nature of MSM and therefore enables contrast between and across rounds. Respondent driven sampling (RDS) happens to be described in more detail in previous studies 22, 23. Quickly, RDS is a modified chain referral non-random sampling technique of recruitment that adjusts for the non-randomness using a mathematical model that loads each sample recruited 23. Inclusion criteria had been male aged 16 years and above with a brief history of oral and/or anal contact that is sexual another guy into the a few months before the study. Known MSM, designated as “seeds” began the chain of this recommendation community and make use of vouchers to recruit find a russian bride their peers to the research. Ten seeds were chosen for every round and seeds were diversified by age, academic status and socioeconomic status. To prevent an over-representation of MSM with comparable characteristics, vouchers limited by three per recruit was used 23, 24. In addition, in order to prevent perform enrollment, only 1 screener ended up being utilized, only 1 person ended up being authorized to reimburse MSM that has effectively recruited their peers and just one location had been used. Each voucher had been yielded and redeemable N500 approx. $3 USD being a motivation for participating, with one more N500 directed at a recruit for every effective extra participant. Total compensation ended up being limited by a maximum payment of n2000 approximately $12 USD. Test size when it comes to 2007 IBBSS ended up being predicted predicated on a thought HIV prevalence of 15%, a design aftereffect of 2.0 and degree of accuracy of 0.05. For the 2010 and 2014 IBBSS, test size ended up being approximated to identify a 10% differ from the subsequent round.
Structured close-ended interviewer administered questionnaires elicited information on socio-demographic faculties, types of intercourse lovers and intimate danger habits. Interviews had been carried out in MSM organizations that are friendly in all the research states. Transactional sex had been examined both with feminine and partners that are male. Sort of rectal intercourse practiced ended up being classified as “insertive penile intercourse” or penile that is“receptive” in past times a few months. HIV danger perception ended up being examined by asking MSM you are at risk of infection with HIV? ” with response options being “yes or no”“do you feel. Consistent condom use with intimate partners during transactional and sex that is non-transactional examined by asking the concerns “how frequently did you or your male partner make use of a condom each time you had intercourse within the last few six months? ” while condom usage at final intercourse ended up being examined because of the concern “the last time you’d anal intercourse do you or your partner make use of a condom? ”. Transactional sex had been evaluated by asking “have you received gift or money in return for sex within the last a few months? ” Written permission had been acquired from all individuals both for behavioural and biological aspects of the study.
Detection of HIV during all of the studies had been regularly carried out by fast test making use of blood that is whole acquired from a hand prick. In line with the HIV that is national testing, a synchronous algorithm of Determine (Alere healthcare, United States Of America) and Unigold (Trinity Biotech, Plc, Bray, Ireland) had been utilized to spot HIV sero-positivity while status of discordant tests ended up being verified by using Stat Pak (Chembio Diagnostic techniques, ny, United States Of America).
Data from each research state had been entered centrally utilizing CS professional variation 3.2 and 25% of questionnaires underwent double-data entry to make certain information quality. Behavioural and biological information had been connected by research unique recognition quantity for every single participant. Data from each round were merged and analyzed utilizing STATA 14.0 (STATA Corporation). Descriptive statistics of demographic, behavioural, and biological factors had been carried out. The Cochran-Armitage Chi Square trend test had been utilized to compare differences when considering categorical factors across various rounds of IBBSS, as the Kruskal-Wallis test ended up being utilized to compare variations in constant factors across various rounds of IBBSS. To determine associations between HIV and predictor variables (Tables), bivariate regression that is logistic had been carried out with p value ?0•2 designated as the cutoff for addition in multivariate logistic regression models. Variables were retained should they attained a p value ?0•05 within the analysis that is multivariate. The predictor factors had been considering information from literary works that revealed a link involving the factors and HIV.
Table 1 highlights the sociodemographic information of MSM throughout the three rounds of this IBBSS. An overall total of 897, 1545 and 3611 MSM had been surveyed in 2007, 2010 and 2014 correspondingly. Lots of the participants had been aged 20–24 years in 2007 (61%) and 2014 (46%), whilst in 2010, almost half (47%) regarding the respondents were 25 years or older. Over 85% of this participants had never ever married in each round associated with the study. Most of the participants had finished at the least level that is secondary, and also this had been greatest among participants in 2007 with 63per cent accompanied by participants in 2014 (55%).
The median wide range of insertive anal lovers had been consistent between 2007 and 2010 with about 50% associated with participants insertive that is reporting sex (IAS) with at the very least two partners interquartile range (IQR 1–4) within the last half a year. For receptive anal sex (RAS), a median of two partners that are sexual reported in 2007 whilst it had been one partner both in 2010 and 2014. Overall, about a 3rd had engaged in transactional intercourse in 2007 (95% self- self- confidence period (CI): 30–36%) and 2014 (32–35%), whilst it had been about two-fifths this year (36–41%). Consistent condom use, whenever intercourse ended up being offered increased steadily from 35% (27–44%) to 79per cent (74–83%) between 2007 and 2014. Likewise, consistent condom used in the last six months ahead of the study during compensated intimate encounters increased from 35% (30–41%) in 2007 to 61percent (58–64%) in 2014. For non-commercial lovers, constant condom usage increased from 32% (29–36%) in 2007 to 51per cent (49–53%) in 2014. For self-reported experiences of sexually infection that is transmitted, there clearly was a growth from 7% (5–9%) in 2007 to 15percent (13–17%) this year and 19per cent (17–20%) in 2014.